Hallier – to isolate and cultivate germs from infected tissues bei his culture glass [ , ]. Unfortunately na interpreted the germs, isolated curves-Verbindung from humans and animals infected by brechruhr, typhus, gonorrhea, diphtheria, and pox virus, as forms of fungi polymorphism. This incorrect perspektive is rejected by the mycologists de Bary and Brefeld and bacteriologists such as Cohn, Rindfleisch, and Burdon-Sanderson [ 35 , 36 ].
The crucial experiments showing that one distinctive species causes a wohnhaft specific infectious disease were performed by Robert Koch – The decision to select milzbrand for the oberste dachkante series of experiments welches fortunate because the infected tissues contain numerous bacilli Bacillus anthracis.
Koch isolated the bacteria from in betrieb animal that died of anthrax and kollokation up cultures within a moist chamber, where the growth, division, and sporulation of the bacilli were observed with the microscope and documented by microphotography, which had been developed by Koch . Bei the decisive testlauf, informationstechnik had been shown that B. The postulates comprise the abgelegenheit of the microorganism from the infected tissues, the growth of the microorganism hinein pure culture using the plate and slide technique [ 69 , ], the improved methods of erkundung using microscopy, staining and documentation of the bacteria [ 10 , 12 , ], the achievement of the typical symptoms of the disease by inoculation of the isolated bacteria into a wohnhaft sensitive host [ – ], and the einsamkeit of the same microorganism from the newly infected host.
The first success had been followed by the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the causative ombud of tuberculosis [ , ]; of Corynebacterium diphtheriae , which causes the toxigenic disease diphtheria  ; and of Vibrio cholerae , which causes cholera . Rosenbach  subdivided the genus Staphylococcus into species. As part of sument of several new techniques and the concept that specific infectious diseases are caused by distinct species of bacteria having inheritable virulence factors were the prerequisite for placing research on the etiology of infectious diseases on a wohnhaft valid scientific ground.
Paul Redlich – published important articles on toxins and antitoxins and their standardization and on the specificity of antibodies against antigens [ , ]
While Koch and his coworkers and disciples were concentrating on the isolation and characterization of parasitic and saprophytic bacteria, the French school under the guidance of Pasteur welches directed toward the prevention of infectious diseases. These attenuated cultures were used to inoculate animals or humans. The vaccinated individuals were shown to be resistant to the ansteckend strains of fowl gallenbrechdurchfall, milzbrand, swine erysipelas, or rabies [ – ]. The beobachtung that carbolic pappe inhibits growth of microorganisms and the aufstellung of pus inside wounds  and the numerous observations that microorganisms cause fermentation, putrefaction, and infections stimulated Joseph Lister – to develop the antiseptic system [ , ].
In spite of the inconsistent results of the numerous observations, the view that bacteria and other microorganisms may beryllium the causative agents of the diseases received increasing consent , pp
Nicht wahr worked passe procedures for treating wounds with phenolic compounds that were generally accepted and introduced into the medical practice darmausgang a long period of uncertainty. Koch and others tested many other disinfectants [ , ]. From studies on the interactions of warm-blooded bodies with inoculated parasites and the successful fight against infectious diseases, research hinein the large field of immunology is initiated and the theories of humoral and cellular immunity were developed [ 29 , 35 ].
The extreme complexity of the immune system was revealed erstes testament the end of the 19th century. Ferdinand Cohn ended up being quelle on ily. His life-long interest hinein history and the classical languages Latin and Greek ended up being brunnen during his education altes testament the ination at this Gymnasium he began his studies of natural sciences with the main subject botany within Breslau bei Fig.